In the first few years after the Quaker movement began in 1652, slavery would have been outside the experience of most Quakers, as it was not much practised in Britain. Garrison drew a distinction between immediatism and the gradualism of the early anti-slavery movement. Quarterly meeting: Meetings for business held four times per year, attended by representatives of all monthly meetings in a region. The Germantown Quakers in Philadelphia stated that slavery itself was immoral in 1688. Explore Quaker Quotes by authors including Bayard Rustin, James Turrell, and Alice Paul at BrainyQuote. Click Britain or the Americas, for more information about Quaker thought and action concerning slavery in these parts of the world. Indiana Yearly Meeting was set off in 1821, composed of Friends in the states of Indiana, Illinois, and the western part of Ohio. Friends' Freedmen's Association of Philadelphia: An organization of Orthodox Quakers founded in 1863 as Friends' Association of Philadelphia and Its Vicinity, for the Relief of Colored Freemen. Memorials: On the death of a minister or other important member, the monthly meeting might prepare a brief biography testifying to the spiritual value of this life. Particular meeting: A formally-established meeting for worship under the care of a monthly meeting. Quakers, also called Friends, belong to a historically Christian denomination known formally as the Religious Society of Friends or Friends Church. Testimonies also can refer to official documents, frequently disownments and memorials, prepared by Quaker business meetings as part of what they considered witnessing to truth. Gurneyite Friends (also called "Evangelical Friends"): Following the teachings of English Quaker minister and reformer, John Joseph Gurney (1788 - 1847), Gurneyites were evangelical Quakers believing in the direct and immediate work of the Holy Spirit based on systematic study of the Scriptures and in the centrality to Christianity of the doctrine of atonement. In North America a long process of persuasion culminated in 1774, when Quakers, involved with slavery, were told to give it up or leave the Society of Friends. Its purpose was to provide relief and education to freed slaves during and after the Civil War. Quaker forms of worship developed which focused on the group encounter with the divine, rather than on dogma or creed. Anti-Slavery Fairs: Fundraising events where free-produce goods were sold to the public, and the proceeds donated to local anti-slavery groups. 1751; 31st 10mo. They joined forces with William Wilberforce and others. The memorial was read at the monthly meeting and forwarded to the quarterly and/or yearly meeting. Progressive Friends (also called "Congregational Friends"): A reform movement which developed among Hicksite Friends in the 1840s, but also included many non-Quaker liberals and radicals. London Yearly Meeting: The first meeting of Friends from different parts of Britain to be organized was in Yorkshire in 1656. Quakers provided a leadership structure, reliable national network, and significant material resources to the campaigns on both sides of the Atlantic. In 1826, Friends in Wilmington, Delaware, drew up a charter for a formal free-produce organization and Baltimore Quaker Benjamin Lundy opened a store that sold only goods obtained by labor from free people. Elias Hicks' "Observations on the Slavery of Africans" (1810) strongly advocated free-produce. Pepsi is the second-most-recognized beverage brand in the world after Coke, and eighteen of PepsiCo's other brands, which include Tropicana, Gatorade, and Quaker Oats, are billion-dollar businesses in their own right. With 1752 the the practice changed; the year 1751 began on 25 March 1751 and ended on 31 December 1751, which was immediately followed by 1 January 1752. Many of the primary movers behind the Association were Quakers involved in the anti-slavery movement. See also Hicksite Friends; Orthodox Friends. It is an intermediary between the monthly and yearly meeting, serves as an appellate body for disciplinary matters, and considers problems too large for a local meeting to solve. Quakers were not alone in this, and the key strength of the historical abolitionist movement, in Britain and North America, was the determination of the slaves themselves. In the first few years after the Quaker movement began in 1652, slavery would have been outside the experience of most Quakers, as it was not much practised in Britain. Indiana Yearly Meeting: see Ohio and Indiana Yearly Meetings. They believe in the true Christian ethics without all the hierarchal greed for power nor hypocritical. The examples given above—24 March 1750, immediately followed by 25 March 1751—would be rendered in the Quaker style as 24th 1mo. It published an official weekly newspaper, the National Anti-Slavery Standard. Slavery is not simply a historical phenomenon; It persists to this day in modern forms, such as trafficking. The protection of the free African-American people from kidnapping was a major concern. Throughout the generations and decades Quaker individuals, families and local Meetings have continued to support this organisation and its work. But they soon saw that ownership of one human being by another contradicted their belief in the fundamental equality of all human beings (the testimony to equality). The campaign drew heavily on the extensive Quaker network. It meets annually to conduct business, formulate the discipline, receive reports and concerns from its constituent meetings, review the state of the Society, and communicate with other yearly meetings and non-Quaker organizations.