Innumerable professionals—social scientists among them—audit, analyze, and forecast the functioning of organizations, institutions, and the society itself. New York, 1973. GORDON MARSHALL "reflexivity Rabinow, Paul. These were followed by two 1986 collections, Michael Fisher and George Marcus's Anthropology as Cultural Critique and James Clifford and Marcus's Writing Culture: The Poetics and Politics of Ethnography, which focused attention on rhetorical strategies by which ethnographies produce their effects and called for a re-thinking of, and reflexive experimentation with writing strategies such as dialogue, pastiche, and memoir. Ferraro, Fabrizio, Jeffrey Pfeffer, and Robert I. Sutton. Paradoxia Epidemica: The Renaissance Tradition of Paradox. Promising to deepen and even improve research, reflexive inquiry may give rise to unsettling problems. Levi, Heather "Reflexivity Trans. Because of its descriptive usefulness, the metalinguistic or metacommunicative model has become pervasive in discussions of all forms of reflexivity. Both the idea that reflexivity consists of the self representing itself to itself and the notion that all forms of representation involve self-reference or reflexivity are present in the plural in the concepts of collective representations and cultural performances, as defined and discussed by sociologists and anthropologists since Durkheim. Further, explication of the embedded and entwined features of social scientific inquiry threatens to initiate an infinite regress in which each successive reflexive turn calls forth yet another to explicate its predecessor. Stanisiaw Ossowski (1897-1963), Polish sociologist, was a scholar of wide interests: his writings include studies of the theory o…, Mannheim, Karl Hymes, Dell, ed. The 1967 publication of Bronislaw Malinowski's field diaries (A Diary in the Strict Sense of the Term ) constituted a third disciplinary crisis insofar as they undermined the seeming transparency of the relationship between fieldwork practice and the production of ethnographic texts. Chicago, 2001. Moroccan Dialogues: Anthropology in Question. Arendt's final work is a rich, challenging analysis of humanity's mental activity; it brings together and reflects upon the major insights of the Western philosophical tradition into the nature of thought and its reflexive and dialogic structure. A second meaning of the term in sociology is traceable to the work of Harold Garfinkel who used the term to mean the process by which social order is created through ad hoc instances of conversational practice. While not all collective representations—verbal, visual, and performative—are religious, it is no surprise that many of them are, for as Robert Bellah states in Beyond Belief (New York, 1970), religion has been "the traditional mode by which men interpreted their world to themselves" (p. 246)—the "pattern of patterns" or epitome of plural reflexivity. (October 16, 2020). To be reflexive is to be reflective; but one is not necessarily reflexive when one is reflective, for to reflect is simply to think about something, but to be reflexive is to think about the process of thinking itself. 1992. Adams, Matthew. With reference to mental operations, the adjective is frequently confused and used interchangeably with its near synonym, reflective. Bourdieu, Pierre, and Loic J. D. Wacquant. "The Primacy of the Ethical: Propositions for a Militant Anthropology." Current Anthropology 36 (1995): 409–440. 241–243). Some interpretivists and particularly postmodernists note that the researcher is not able to be genuinely objective because they are as much a part of the society that is being studied as the "subjects" of the research. In addition to this ineluctable reflexivity of religion's collective representations and plural expressions, many singular religious practices are explicitly reflexive. 1991. Encyclopedia.com. Far from being a philosopher's prerogative, reflexivity so conceived is nothing more nor less than the process of rendering experience meaningful—the inevitable and necessary "framing" that everyone engages in. Forgetful of both their origins and contributions to what they “discover,” reflexive turns (including this description of reflexive turns) treat the phenomena they discern as preexistent independent objects and themselves as (mere) observation, revelation, or representation. noun. reflecting back on oneself). The adjective reflexive first appeared in English in 1588; it was used as early as 1640 to refer to the capacity of mental operations to be "turned or directed back upon the mind itself." Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1982. Economics, Language, and Assumptions: How Theories Can Become Self-Fulfilling. This edition of Mead's lectures presents the outlines of his system of social psychology and his classic formulation of the self as reflexive, as a social construct. A related confusion occurs with the term self-consciousness, which denotes primary awareness of self rather than the consciousness of self-consciousness characteristic of reflexivity—what Fichte described as the "ability to raise oneself above oneself," in contrast to "vain self-reflection." On the institutional level, reflexive inquiry examines how various contexts or fields foster intellectual dispositions and prejudgments that form what Pierre Bourdieu in 1992 referred to as “the collective scientific unconscious” (Bourdieu and Wacquant 1992). (October 16, 2020). Reinventing Anthropology. Charles W. Morris. An Invitation to Reflexive Sociology. Crapanzano, Vincent. A high level of social reflexivity would be defined by an individual shaping their own norms, tastes, politics, desires, and so on. Colie, 1966, p. 7). When, for example, Kenneth Burke defines humanity in the first chapter of Language as Symbolic Action (1966), he describes as "characteristically human" this "'second-level' aspect of symbolicity or 'reflexive' capacity to develop highly complex symbol systems about symbol systems, the pattern of which is indicated in Aristotle's definition of God as 'thought of thought,' or in Hegel's dialectics of 'self-consciousness'" (p. 24). British Journal of Sociology 54 (June 2003): 221–239. "Solipsism and Sociality." In A Crack in the Mirror: Reflexive Perspectives in Anthropology, edited by Jay Ruby, pp. . International Journal of Philosophical Studies 11 (Sept. 2003): 319–340. part of a liberatory "radical sociology."