By gaining a deeper understanding of the body, scientists can determine how likely members … The study of genetics is important because it helps scientists identify and understand diseases. From the use of DNA in court cases to the discovery of new therapies for genetic diseases, a thorough understanding of the human genome can have important … DNA, organic chemical of complex molecular structure found in all prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The structure of DNA was described in 1953, leading to further understanding of DNA … The major function of DNA is to encode the sequence of amino acid residues in proteins, using the genetic code. It’s made up of units of biological building blocks called nucleotides. It codes genetic information for the transmission of inherited traits. The study of human DNA and genetics can be intellectually fascinating, but it also has plenty of practical applications. DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid. And even today, more than 150 years after it was first discovered, exciting research and technology continue to offer more insight and a better answer to the question: why is DNA important? Although the discovery of DNA occurred in 1869 by Swiss-born biochemist Fredrich Miescher, it took more than 80 years for its importance to be fully realized. To read the genetic code, cells make a copy of a stretch of DNA in the nucleic acid RNA.